Ficus carica

                 
                 
Common Name Fig, Edible fig, Fig Common
Family Moraceae
Synonyms
Known Hazards The sap and the half-ripe fruits are said to be poisonous[20, 89]. The sap can be a serious eye irritant[238].
Habitats Amongst rocks, in woods and scrub on hot dry soils.
Range W. Asia. Occasionally found self-sown in Britain, especially in the south-west.
Edibility Rating  
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Fully Hardy Well drained soil Moist Soil Full sun

Summary

      
Bloom Color: Green, Yellow. Main Bloom Time: Early spring, Late spring, Mid spring. Form: Spreading or horizontal, Upright or erect.

Physical Characteristics

      
 icon of manicon of lolypop
Ficus carica is a deciduous Tree growing to 6 m (19ft) by 6 m (19ft) at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 7 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jun to September, and the seeds ripen from Aug to September. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant)The plant is self-fertile.


USDA hardiness zone : 6-11


Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in heavy clay and nutritionally poor soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.

Ficus carica Fig, Edible fig, Fig Common


 
Ficus carica Fig, Edible fig, Fig Common
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Topjabot
   

Habitats

      
Woodland Garden Sunny Edge; South Wall. By. West Wall. By.

Edible Uses

                                        
Edible Parts: Fruit.
Edible Uses: Curdling agent.

Fruit - raw or cooked[1, 3, 3, 4, 46]. Sweet and succulent, a fully ripe specimen is an exquisite fruit that almost literally melts in the mouth[K]. The fruit is often dried for later use[183] and this dried fruit is a major item of commerce. Figs are usually pear-shaped and up to 5cm in diameter[200]. A nutritional analysis is available[218]. The latex from the sap can be used to coagulate plant milks[183].

Composition

                                        
Figures in grams (g) or miligrams (mg) per 100g of food.  
Fruit (Dry weight)  
  • 352 Calories per 100g
  • Water : 0%
  • Protein: 6g; Fat: 1.2g; Carbohydrate: 89g; Fibre: 7g; Ash: 3.8g;
  • Minerals - Calcium: 220mg; Phosphorus: 133mg; Iron: 2.7mg; Magnesium: 0mg; Sodium: 9mg; Potassium: 862mg; Zinc: 0mg;
  • Vitamins - A: 347mg; Thiamine (B1): 0.25mg; Riboflavin (B2): 0.25mg; Niacin: 2mg; B6: 0mg; C: 9.22mg;
  • Reference: [ 218]
  • Notes:

Medicinal Uses



Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Cancer;  Demulcent;  Digestive;  Emollient;  Galactogogue;  Laxative;  Pectoral;  Stings;  Stomachic;  Tonic;  Warts.


A decoction of the leaves is stomachic[218]. The leaves are also added to boiling water and used as a steam bath for painful or swollen piles[218]. The latex from the stems is used to treat corns, warts and piles[4, 89, 218]. It also has an analgesic effect against insect stings and bites[7]. The fruit is mildly laxative, demulcent, digestive and pectoral[4, 7, 218]. The unripe green fruits are cooked with other foods as a galactogogue and tonic[218]. The roasted fruit is emollient and used as a poultice in the treatment of gumboils, dental abscesses etc[4]. Syrup of figs, made from the fruit, is a well-known and effective gentle laxative that is also suitable for the young and very old[254, K]. A decoction of the young branches is an excellent pectoral[7]. The plant has anticancer properties[218].

Other Uses

Wood - pliable but porous and of little value[4, 89]. It is used for hoops, garlands, ornaments etc[89]. When saturated with oil and covered with emery is used as a substitute for a hone[4].

Cultivation details

                                        
Landscape Uses:Container, Specimen. Requires a well-drained medium to light loam and some lime rubble incorporated into the soil[1]. Succeeds in dry soils. A heavy wet soil tends to encourage excessive plant growth at the expense of fruit production[1]. Prefers a very sunny position but tolerates part-day shade when grown on a warm wall[202]. Plants are hardy to about -15°c[202]. The top growth is susceptible to frost damage and can be killed back to the base in severe winters, though plants usually recover well[3]. Trees require the protection of a south or west facing wall in most parts of Britain if they are to produce a worthwhile crop[3, 219], though free standing trees can succeed in Cornwall[59]. There is a small orchard of free-standing trees in Anthony garden near Plymouth. These were seen in July 1995 with a very heavy crop of ripening fruits that would have been ready by August[K]. Figs are very widely cultivated in warmer climes than Britain for their edible fruit, there are many named varieties[183]. 'Brown Turkey' is the cultivar most commonly grown in Britain and is probably the most suitable for this climate. 'White Ischia' is a dwarf cultivar (though it can still be 5 metres tall and wide) and is ideal for pot culture[238]. It produces an abundance of green-white thin-skinned fruits[238]. Up to three crops of fruit a year can be obtained in some countries[46]. When grown outdoors in Britain only one crop is usually obtained, though in exceptionally hot years two crops are sometimes produced. The fruit usually takes about 12 months to mature in Britain, baby fruits no larger than about 15mm long in the autumn usually overwinter to form the following years crop of fruit. If plants are grown in pots in a conservatory or cold greenhouse, two crops of fruit can be obtained, one in early summer and one in late summer to autumn[260]. Pinch back the new shoots to about six leaves in order to encourage the second crop[260]. It is a good idea to restrict the roots of fig trees on most soil types in order to discourage excessive vegetative growth at the expense of fruit production[3]. This can be done by root pruning, but it is easier to place some kind of permanent restriction around the roots - planting into a large tub that is then buried into the ground is one method. It is important to make sure that the tree still gets ample moisture, especially when the fruits are ripening. Special Features: Attractive foliage, Not North American native, Invasive, Inconspicuous flowers or blooms.
                                                                                 

Propagation

                                        

Seed - sow spring in a warm greenhouse. Prick out the seedlings as soon as they are large enough to handle and overwinter the young plants in a greenhouse for at least their first year. Plant out in late spring after the last expected frosts and give some protection for their first winter outdoors.

Cuttings of mature wood 10 - 12cm with a heel, winter in a frame. Fairly easy, but the cuttings must be kept frost free. It is probably best if the cuttings are put in individual pots[78].

Layering.

 

Additional information for Fig