Asclepias tuberosa

Common Name Pleurisy Root, Butterfly milkweed, Rolfs' milkweed, Indian Paintbrush
Family Asclepiadaceae
Known Hazards Although no specific reports have been seen for this species, many, if not all, members of this genus contain toxic resinoids, alkaloids and cardiac glycosides[274]. They are usually avoided by grazing animals[274]. The plant is poisonous if eaten in large quantities[20, 62]. Very large doses can cause diarrhoea and vomiting[268].
Habitats Dry open sandy and gravelly soils and grassy places by the sides of roads[43, 187, 268].
Range N. America - S. Ontario and New York to Minnesota, south to Florida and Colorado.
Edibility Rating  
Medicinal Rating  
Fully Hardy Well drained soil Moist Soil Semi-shade Full sun

Bloom Color: Orange, Red, Yellow. Main Bloom Time: Early summer, Late summer, Mid summer. Form: Upright or erect.

Physical Characteristics       
 icon of manicon of flower
Asclepias tuberosa is a PERENNIAL growing to 0.8 m (2ft 7in) by 0.5 m (1ft 8in) at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 3. It is in flower from Jul to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, insects, lepidoptera.

USDA hardiness zone : 3-9

Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.

Asclepias tuberosa Pleurisy Root, Butterfly milkweed, Rolfs
Asclepias tuberosa Pleurisy Root, Butterfly milkweed, Rolfs
 Cultivated Beds;
Edible Uses                                         
Edible Parts: Flowers;  Leaves;  Oil;  Root;  Seedpod.
Edible Uses: Oil;  Sweetener.

Whilst most parts of this plant have been used as food, some caution is advised since large doses can cause diarrhoea and vomiting - see the notes above on toxicity. Flower buds - cooked. They taste somewhat like peas[85]. Young shoots - cooked. An asparagus substitute[2, 4, 46, 85, 183]. The tips of older shoots are cooked like spinach[85]. Young seed pods - cooked. Harvested when 3 - 4 cm long and before the seed floss begins to form, they are very appetizing[2, 4, 21, 61, 85]. The flower clusters can be boiled down to make a sugary syrup[2, 4, 85, 183]. In hot weather the flowers produce so much nectar that it crystallises out into small lumps which can be eaten like sweets, they are delicious[K]. Root - cooked[2, 4, 46, 61, 85, 105]. A nutty flavour[165]. Some reports say that it is poisonous[183]. An edible oil is obtained from the seed[112]. The seed is very small, however, and commercial usage would not be very viable.
Medicinal Uses

Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Antispasmodic;  Carminative;  Cathartic;  Diaphoretic;  Diuretic;  Expectorant;  Poultice;  Tonic;  Vasodilator.

Pleurisy root is a bitter, nutty-flavoured tonic herb that increases perspiration, relieves spasms and acts as an expectorant[238]. It was much used by the North American Indians and acquired a reputation as a heal-all amongst the earlier white settlers[254, 257]. Its main use in present day herbalism is for relieving the pain and inflammation of pleurisy[254]. The root is antispasmodic, carminative, mildly cathartic, diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, tonic and vasodilator[4, 21, 46, 165]. The root was very popular as a medicinal herb for the treatment of a range of lung diseases, it was considered especially useful as an expectorant[4, 213, 254]. It has never been scientifically examined and warrants further investigation[213]. It has also been used internally with great advantage in the treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery, rheumatism etc[4]. Use with caution[21], This remedy should not be prescribed for pregnant women[238]. See also the notes above on toxicity. The root is harvested in the autumn and can be used fresh or dried[238]. A poultice of the dried, powdered roots is used in the treatment of swellings, bruises, wounds, ulcers, lameness etc[222, 238, 268].
Other Uses
Fibre;  Latex;  Oil;  Pollution;  Stuffing.

A good quality fibre is obtained from the bark and is used in making twine, cloth etc[112]. It is easily harvested in late autumn after the plant has died down by simply pulling the fibres off the dried stems[169]. The seed floss is used to stuff pillows etc or is mixed with other fibres to make cloth[169]. It is a kapok substitute, used in life jackets or as a stuffing material[169]. Very water repellent. The floss has also been used to mop up oil spills at sea. The plant is a potential source of latex, used for making rubber[57]. This species is the only member of the genus that does not have latex in its sap[213]. The seedpods contain an oil and a wax which are of potential importance. Candle wicks are made from the seed floss. The seed contains up to 21% of a semi-drying oil[112].
Cultivation details                                         
Landscape Uses:Border, Container, Foundation, Massing, Rock garden, Seashore, Specimen. Prefers a well-drained light, rich or peaty soil[1, 200]. Prefers a sandy soil and a sunny position[111, 233]. Prefers a slightly acid soil[238]. Prefers a dry soil[187, 238]. Plants are hardy to about -20°c[187]. Another report says that this species is only suited to the warmer areas of Britain[233]. A very ornamental plant[1], but it is not easy to establish or to keep in British gardens[233]. Resents root disturbance[4, 134], plants should be pot-grown from seed and planted out in their permanent positions when young. Plants are particularly at risk from slugs, however, and some protection will probably be required until the plants are established and also in the spring when the new shoots come into growth[K]. The flower can trap insects between its anther cells, the struggles of the insect in escaping ensure the pollination of the plant[207]. Special Features: Attractive foliage, North American native, Naturalizing, Attracts butterflies, Suitable for cut flowers, Suitable for dried flowers, Attractive flowers or blooms.
Seed - best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe in the autumn or in late winter[134, 169]. We have also had good results from sowing the seed in the greenhouse in early spring[K], though stored seed might need 2 - 3 weeks cold stratification[134]. Germination usually takes place in 1 - 3 months at 18°c[134]. As soon as the seedlings are large enough to handle, prick them out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant out when they are in active growth in late spring or early summer and give them some protection from slugs until they are growing away strongly. Division in spring. With great care since the plant resents root disturbance. Pot the divisions up and place them in a lightly shaded position in the greenhouse until they are growing away strongly, then plant them out in the summer, giving them some protection from slugs until they are established.. Basal cuttings in late spring. Use shoots about 10cm long with as much of their white underground stem as possible. Pot them up individually and place them in a lightly shaded position in a greenhouse until they are rooting and growing actively. If the plants grow sufficiently, they can be put into their permanent positions in the summer, otherwise keep them in the greenhouse until the following spring and when they are in active growth plant them out into their permanent positions. Give them some protection from slugs until they are established.